[PATCHv3 4/7] arm64: Move some head.text functions to executable section

Laura Abbott lauraa at codeaurora.org
Mon Aug 25 17:32:27 PDT 2014

On 8/22/2014 2:48 AM, Mark Rutland wrote:
> On Thu, Aug 21, 2014 at 10:42:13PM +0100, Laura Abbott wrote:
>> On 8/21/2014 3:34 AM, Mark Rutland wrote:
>>> Hi Laura,
>>> On Thu, Aug 21, 2014 at 02:20:36AM +0100, Laura Abbott wrote:
>>>> The code in the head.text section of the kernel exists in the
>>>> same section as the swapper_pg_dir which means it needs the
>>>> same page table permissions. The swapper_pg_dir needs to be
>>>> writeable but shouldn't be executable.
>>> I think we can drop the above. As far as I can tell as of commit
>>> bd00cd5f8c8c (arm64: place initial page tables above the kernel) it's no
>>> longer relevant.
>> Yes, this should be changed. Instead of citing swapper_pg_dir, I need
>> to cite the fact that there may still be memory outside of stext which
>> will get freed to the buddy allocator and therefore should be RW/NX.
> Ok. I must be missing something here; we don't seem to free any of
> .head.text to the buddy allocator at the moment. Are we just trying to
> have the bare minimum remain executable regardless?

It's not head.text per se, but we do 

memblock_reserve(__pa(_text), _end - _text);

to reserve the text area. On the system I was testing on, _text did not
start at PAGE_OFFSET so there was still some not reserved memory
between PAGE_OFFSET and _text which was freed to the buddy allocator.

>>>> The head.text section
>>>> is intended to be run at early bootup before any of the regular
>>>> kernel mappings have been setup so there is no issue at bootup.
>>>> The suspend/resume/hotplug code path requires some of these
>>>> head.S functions to run however which means they need to be
>>>> executable. We can't easily move all of the head.text to
>>>> an executable section, so split it into two parts: that which
>>>> is used only at early head.S bootup and that which is used
>>>> after bootup. There is a small bit of code duplication because
>>>> of some relocation issues related to accessing code more than
>>>> 1MB away.
>>> From a cursory glance it looks like the only things we need write access
>>> to in .head.text are __cpu_boot_mode and __switch_data. Can't we instead
>>> place those in .data and make .head.text executable?
>>> We currently find them with adr, which should be easy to replace with
>>> adrp + add to get around relocation issues.
>> __boot_cpu_mode should be placed in data with a push section and
>> __switch_data is only modified before the permissions are set up.
> Ok, so those are fine then.
>> I took a closer look at the code and the only thing that actually
>> needs to be executable from head.S is __secondary_switched so
>> the following patch should be sufficient to cover it:
>> diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S b/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S
>> index caa9557..5c17599 100644
>> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S
>> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S
>> @@ -414,12 +414,14 @@ ENTRY(secondary_startup)
>>         b       __enable_mmu
>>  ENDPROC(secondary_startup)
>> +       .pushsection    .text, "ax"
>>  ENTRY(__secondary_switched)
>>         ldr     x0, [x21]                       // get secondary_data.stack
>>         mov     sp, x0
>>         mov     x29, #0
>>         b       secondary_start_kernel
>>  ENDPROC(__secondary_switched)
>> +       .popsection
>>  #endif /* CONFIG_SMP */
> If we need to cover __secondary_switched, don't we need to cover
> __turn_mmu_on as well, given that will turn the MMU on and branch to
> __secondary_switched?

You should be right but when I was testing this I seemed to get away
without needing it. It's probably just luck and I should move
__turn_mmu_on to text just to be on the safe side as well.


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