[PATCH v4 28/28] arm/arm64: Add hyp-stub API documentation

Marc Zyngier marc.zyngier at arm.com
Fri Mar 24 08:57:41 PDT 2017

On 24/03/17 15:23, Christoffer Dall wrote:
> On Fri, Mar 24, 2017 at 02:42:13PM +0000, Marc Zyngier wrote:
>> On 24/03/17 14:33, Christoffer Dall wrote:
>>> On Tue, Mar 21, 2017 at 07:20:58PM +0000, Marc Zyngier wrote:
>>>> In order to help people understanding the hyp-stub API that exists
>>>> between the host kernel and the hypervisor mode (whether a hypervisor
>>>> has been installed or not), let's document said API.
>>>> As with any form of documentation, I expect it to become obsolete
>>>> and completely misleading within 20 minutes after having being merged.
>>> I don't think this last sentence belongs in the commit message.
>>>> Acked-by: Russell King <rmk+kernel at armlinux.org.uk>
>>>> Signed-off-by: Marc Zyngier <marc.zyngier at arm.com>
>>>> ---
>>>>  Documentation/virtual/kvm/arm/hyp-abi.txt | 45 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>>>>  1 file changed, 45 insertions(+)
>>>>  create mode 100644 Documentation/virtual/kvm/arm/hyp-abi.txt
>>>> diff --git a/Documentation/virtual/kvm/arm/hyp-abi.txt b/Documentation/virtual/kvm/arm/hyp-abi.txt
>>>> new file mode 100644
>>>> index 000000000000..a1e0314d2249
>>>> --- /dev/null
>>>> +++ b/Documentation/virtual/kvm/arm/hyp-abi.txt
>>>> @@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
>>>> +* Internal ABI between the kernel and HYP
>>>> +
>>>> +This file documents the interaction between the Linux kernel and the
>>>> +hypervisor layer when running Linux as a hypervisor (for example
>>>> +KVM). It doesn't cover the interaction of the kernel with the
>>>> +hypervisor when running as a guest (under Xen, KVM or any other
>>>> +hypervisor), or any hypervisor-specific interaction when the kernel is
>>>> +used as a host.
>>>> +
>>>> +On arm and arm64 (without VHE), the kernel doesn't run in hypervisor
>>>> +mode, but still needs to interact with it, allowing a built-in
>>>> +hypervisor to be either installed or torn down.
>>>> +
>>>> +In order to achieve this, the kernel must be booted at HYP (arm) or
>>>> +EL2 (arm64), allowing it to install a set of stubs before dropping to
>>>> +SVC/EL1. These stubs are accessible by using a 'hvc #0' instruction,
>>>> +and only act on individual CPUs.
>>>> +
>>>> +Unless specified otherwise, any built-in hypervisor must implement
>>>> +these functions (see arch/arm{,64}/include/asm/virt.h):
>>>> +
>>>> +* r0/x0 = HVC_SET_VECTORS
>>>> +  r1/x1 = vectors
>>>> +
>>>> +  Set HVBAR/VBAR_EL2 to 'vectors' to enable a hypervisor. 'vectors'
>>>> +  must be a physical address, and respect the alignment requirements
>>>> +  of the architecture. Only implemented by the initial stubs.
>>> Does this last sentence mean that KVM doesn't implement this function?
>> Indeed. 
> I think the wording could be improved to "Only implemented by the
> initial stubs, not by Linux hypervisors."

Looks good to me, I'll use that.

>> Directly setting the vectors is inherently unsafe (MMU could
>> still be ON, for example), hence the HVC_SET_VECTORS operation that
>> allow this to be done safely (RESET followed by SET).
> Hmm, is it any less safe than setting the vectors using the hyp stubs?
> In the initial case, we're relying on the caller knowing that the MMU is
> off, and that the stubs are in place, otherwise it doesn't make sense.

That's why I was implying here that RESET+SET is the safe way of doing
it. Another solution may be to make SET imply RESET, and keep it
implemented always?

> But I think the point is just that we don't have a need to change the
> vector from within KVM; we only have a need to set the vector when going
> from stub->kvm, and we have a need to reset the whole thing (including
> turning off the MMU) when going from kvm->stub.

Exactly. The current API doesn't try to cater for all possible cases. It
just make sure that KVM can be installed and torn down safely.

> Anyhow, my comment was just about the wording, as I had some nagging
> doubt when I read the patch.
>>>> +
>>>> +* r0/x0 = HVC_RESET_VECTORS
>>>> +
>>>> +  Turn HYP/EL2 MMU off, and reset HVBAR/VBAR_EL2 to the default
>>>> +  value. This effectively disables an existing hypervisor.
>>> What's the 'default value' ?  Could we say to the physical address of
>>> the hypervisor stub's exception vector?
>> Shouldn't that be the kernel stub's exception vector?
> Yeah, the "initials stubs' exception vector" is probably the most
> coherent thing we can use here.

I'll use that when respinning it.


Jazz is not dead. It just smells funny...

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