[PATCH v3 00/21] arm64: implement support for KASLR
ard.biesheuvel at linaro.org
Mon Jan 11 23:17:45 PST 2016
On 11 January 2016 at 23:07, Kees Cook <keescook at chromium.org> wrote:
> On Mon, Jan 11, 2016 at 5:18 AM, Ard Biesheuvel
> <ard.biesheuvel at linaro.org> wrote:
>> This series implements KASLR for arm64, by building the kernel as a PIE
>> executable that can relocate itself at runtime, and moving it to a random
>> offset in the vmalloc area. v2 and up also implement physical randomization,
>> i.e., it allows the kernel to deal with being loaded at any physical offset
>> (modulo the required alignment), and invokes the EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL from the
>> UEFI stub to obtain random bits and perform the actual randomization of the
>> physical load address.
> I will continue cheering! :)
>> Changes since v2:
>> - Incorporated feedback from Marc Zyngier into the KVM patch (#5)
>> - Dropped the pgdir section and the patch that memblock_reserve()'s the kernel
>> sections at a smaller granularity. This is no longer necessary with the pgdir
>> section gone. This also fixes an issue spotted by James Morse where the fixmap
>> page tables are not zeroed correctly; these have been moved back to the .bss
>> - Got rid of all ifdef'ery regarding the number of translation levels in the
>> changed .c files, by introducing new definitions in pgtable.h (#3, #6)
>> - Fixed KAsan support, which was broken by all earlier versions.
>> - Moved module region along with the virtually randomized kernel, so that module
>> addresses become unpredictable as well, and we only have to rely on veneers in
>> the PLTs when the module region is exhausted (which is somewhat more likely
>> since the module region is now shared with other uses of the vmalloc area)
> Just to make sure I understand: this means that the offset between
> kernel and modules remains static? It may still be useful to bump
> modules as well, just so that leaking a module address doesn't
> compromise the base kernel image address too. Don't block the series
> for this, though. It's a minor nit. :)
Well, the module region could be any 128 MB memory region that also
covers the [_stext, _etext) interval. This would still allow all
modules to branch to all other modules and the core kernel without
resorting to indirect PLT jumps.
IOW, I think I can work around this quite easily.
>> - Added support for the 'nokaslr' command line option. This affects the
>> randomization performed by the stub, and results in a warning if passed while
>> the bootloader also presented a random seed for virtual KASLR in register x1.
>> - The .text/.rodata sections of the kernel are no longer aliased in the linear
>> region with a writable mapping.
>> - Added a separate image header flag for kernel images that may be loaded at any
>> 2 MB aligned offset (+ TEXT_OFFSET)
>> - The KASLR displacement is now corrected if it results in the kernel image
>> intersecting a PUD/PMD boundary (4k and 16k/64k granule kernels, respectively)
>> - Split out UEFI stub random routines into separate patches.
>> - Implemented a weight based EFI random allocation routine so that each suitable
>> offset in available memory is equally likely to be selected (as suggested by
>> Kees Cook)
>> - Reused CONFIG_RELOCATABLE and CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_BASE instead of introducing
>> new Kconfig symbols to describe the same functionality.
>> - Reimplemented mem= logic so memory is clipped from the top first.
>> Changes since v1/RFC:
>> - This series now implements fully independent virtual and physical address
>> randomization at load time. I have recycled some patches from this series:
>> http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.ports.arm.kernel/455151, and updated the
>> final UEFI stub patch to randomize the physical address as well.
>> - Added a patch to deal with the way KVM on arm64 makes assumptions about the
>> relation between kernel symbols and the linear mapping (on which the HYP
>> mapping is based), as these assumptions cease to be valid once we move the
>> kernel Image out of the linear mapping.
>> - Updated the module PLT patch so it works on BE kernels as well.
>> - Moved the constant Image header values to head.S, and updated the linker
>> script to provide the kernel size using R_AARCH64_ABS32 relocation rather
>> than a R_AARCH64_ABS64 relocation, since those are always resolved at build
>> time. This allows me to get rid of the post-build perl script to swab header
>> values on BE kernels.
>> - Minor style tweaks.
>> - These patches apply on top of Mark Rutland's pagetable rework series:
>> - The arm64 Image is uncompressed by default, and the Elf64_Rela format uses
>> 24 bytes per relocation entry. This results in considerable bloat (i.e., a
>> couple of MBs worth of relocation data in an .init section). However, no
>> build time postprocessing is required, we rely fully on the toolchain to
>> produce the image
>> - We have to rely on the bootloader to supply some randomness in register x1
>> upon kernel entry. Since we have no decompressor, it is simply not feasible
>> to collect randomness in the head.S code path before mapping the kernel and
>> enabling the MMU.
>> - The EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL that is invoked in patch #13 to supply randomness on
>> UEFI systems is not universally available. A QEMU/KVM firmware image that
>> implements a pseudo-random version is available here:
>> (requires access to PMCCNTR_EL0 and support for AES instructions)
>> See below for instructions how to run the pseudo-random version on real
>> - Only mildly tested. Help appreciated.
>> Code can be found here:
>> git://git.linaro.org/people/ard.biesheuvel/linux-arm.git arm64-kaslr-v3
>> Patch #1 updates the OF code to allow the minimum memblock physical address to
>> be overridden by the arch.
>> Patch #2 introduces KIMAGE_VADDR as the base of the kernel virtual region.
>> Patch #3 introduces dummy pud_index() and pmd_index() macros that are intended
>> to be optimized away if the configured number of translation levels does not
>> actually use them.
>> Patch #4 rewrites early_fixmap_init() so it does not rely on the linear mapping
>> (i.e., the use of phys_to_virt() is avoided)
>> Patch #5 updates KVM on arm64 so it can deal with kernel symbols whose addresses
>> are not covered by the linear mapping.
>> Patch #6 introduces pte_offset_kimg(), pmd_offset_kimg() and pud_offset_kimg()
>> that allow statically allocated page tables (i.e., by fixmap and kasan) to be
>> traversed before the linear mapping is installed.
>> Patch #7 moves the kernel virtual mapping to the vmalloc area, along with the
>> module region which is kept right below it, as before.
>> Patch #8 adds support for PLTs in modules so that relative branches can be
>> resolved via a PLT if the target is out of range. This is required for KASLR,
>> since modules may be loaded far away from the core kernel.
>> Patch #9 and #10 move arm64 to the a new generic relative version of the extable
>> implementation so that it no longer contains absolute addresses that require
>> fixing up at relocation time, but uses relative offsets instead.
>> Patch #11 reverts some changes to the Image header population code so we no
>> longer depend on the linker to populate the header fields. This is necessary
>> since the R_AARCH64_ABS64 relocations that are emitted for these fields are not
>> resolved at build time for PIE executables.
>> Patch #12 updates the code in head.S that needs to execute before relocation to
>> avoid the use of values that are subject to dynamic relocation. These values
>> will not be populated in PIE executables.
>> Patch #13 allows the kernel Image to be loaded anywhere in physical memory, by
>> decoupling PHYS_OFFSET from the base of the kernel image.
>> Patch #14 redefines SWAPPER_TABLE_SHIFT in a way that allows it to be used from
>> assembler code regardless of the number of configured translation levels.
>> Patch #15 (from Mark Rutland) moves the ELF relocation type #defines to a
>> separate file so we can use it from head.S later
>> Patch #16 updates scripts/sortextable.c so it accepts ET_DYN (relocatable)
>> executables as well as ET_EXEC (static) executables.
>> Patch #17 implements the core KASLR, by taking randomness supplied in register
>> x1 and using it to move the kernel inside the vmalloc area.
>> Patch #18 implements efi_get_random_bytes() based on the EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL
>> Patch #19 implements efi_random_alloc()
>> Patch #20 moves the allocation for the converted command line (UTF-16 to ASCII)
>> away from the base of memory. This is necessary since for parsing
>> Patch #21 implements the actual KASLR, by randomizing the kernel physical
>> address, and passing entropy in x1 so that the kernel proper can relocate itself
>> Ard Biesheuvel (20):
>> of/fdt: make memblock minimum physical address arch configurable
>> arm64: introduce KIMAGE_VADDR as the virtual base of the kernel region
>> arm64: pgtable: add dummy pud_index() and pmd_index() definitions
>> arm64: decouple early fixmap init from linear mapping
>> arm64: kvm: deal with kernel symbols outside of linear mapping
>> arm64: pgtable: implement static [pte|pmd|pud]_offset variants
>> arm64: move kernel image to base of vmalloc area
>> arm64: add support for module PLTs
>> extable: add support for relative extables to search and sort routines
>> arm64: switch to relative exception tables
>> arm64: avoid R_AARCH64_ABS64 relocations for Image header fields
>> arm64: avoid dynamic relocations in early boot code
>> arm64: allow kernel Image to be loaded anywhere in physical memory
>> arm64: redefine SWAPPER_TABLE_SHIFT for use in asm code
>> scripts/sortextable: add support for ET_DYN binaries
>> arm64: add support for a relocatable kernel and KASLR
>> efi: stub: implement efi_get_random_bytes() based on EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL
>> efi: stub: add implementation of efi_random_alloc()
>> efi: stub: use high allocation for converted command line
>> arm64: efi: invoke EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL to supply KASLR randomness
>> Mark Rutland (1):
>> arm64: split elf relocs into a separate header.
>> Documentation/arm64/booting.txt | 34 ++++-
>> arch/arm/include/asm/kvm_asm.h | 2 +
>> arch/arm/include/asm/kvm_mmu.h | 2 +
>> arch/arm/kvm/arm.c | 5 +-
>> arch/arm/kvm/mmu.c | 8 +-
>> arch/arm64/Kconfig | 40 +++++
>> arch/arm64/Makefile | 10 +-
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/assembler.h | 30 +++-
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/boot.h | 6 +
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/elf.h | 54 +------
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/elf_relocs.h | 75 ++++++++++
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/futex.h | 12 +-
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/kasan.h | 20 +--
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/kernel-pgtable.h | 20 ++-
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_asm.h | 19 ++-
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_host.h | 8 +-
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_mmu.h | 2 +
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/memory.h | 38 +++--
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/module.h | 11 ++
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/pgtable.h | 22 ++-
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/uaccess.h | 30 ++--
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/virt.h | 4 -
>> arch/arm64/include/asm/word-at-a-time.h | 7 +-
>> arch/arm64/kernel/Makefile | 1 +
>> arch/arm64/kernel/armv8_deprecated.c | 7 +-
>> arch/arm64/kernel/efi-entry.S | 9 +-
>> arch/arm64/kernel/head.S | 155 +++++++++++++++++---
>> arch/arm64/kernel/image.h | 37 ++---
>> arch/arm64/kernel/module-plts.c | 137 +++++++++++++++++
>> arch/arm64/kernel/module.c | 15 +-
>> arch/arm64/kernel/module.lds | 4 +
>> arch/arm64/kernel/setup.c | 44 +++++-
>> arch/arm64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S | 13 +-
>> arch/arm64/kvm/debug.c | 1 +
>> arch/arm64/kvm/hyp.S | 6 +-
>> arch/arm64/mm/dump.c | 12 +-
>> arch/arm64/mm/extable.c | 2 +-
>> arch/arm64/mm/init.c | 91 ++++++++++--
>> arch/arm64/mm/kasan_init.c | 21 ++-
>> arch/arm64/mm/mmu.c | 95 +++++++-----
>> arch/x86/include/asm/efi.h | 2 +
>> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile | 2 +-
>> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/arm-stub.c | 17 ++-
>> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/arm64-stub.c | 67 +++++++--
>> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/efi-stub-helper.c | 24 ++-
>> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/efistub.h | 9 ++
>> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/random.c | 120 +++++++++++++++
>> drivers/of/fdt.c | 5 +-
>> include/linux/efi.h | 5 +-
>> lib/extable.c | 50 +++++--
>> scripts/sortextable.c | 10 +-
>> 51 files changed, 1111 insertions(+), 309 deletions(-)
>> create mode 100644 arch/arm64/include/asm/elf_relocs.h
>> create mode 100644 arch/arm64/kernel/module-plts.c
>> create mode 100644 arch/arm64/kernel/module.lds
>> create mode 100644 drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/random.c
>> EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL on real hardware
>> To test whether your UEFI implements the EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL, download the
>> following executable and run it from the UEFI Shell:
>> FS0:\> rngtest
>> UEFI RNG Protocol Testing :
>> -- Locate UEFI RNG Protocol : [Fail - Status = Not Found]
>> If your UEFI does not implement the EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL, you can download and
>> install the pseudo-random version that uses the generic timer and PMCCNTR_EL0
>> values and permutes them using a couple of rounds of AES.
>> NOTE: not for production!! This is a quick and dirty hack to test the KASLR
>> code, and is not suitable for anything else.
>> FS0:\> rngdxe
>> FS0:\> rngtest
>> UEFI RNG Protocol Testing :
>> -- Locate UEFI RNG Protocol : [Pass]
>> -- Call RNG->GetInfo() interface :
>> >> Supported RNG Algorithm (Count = 2) :
>> 0) 44F0DE6E-4D8C-4045-A8C7-4DD168856B9E
>> 1) E43176D7-B6E8-4827-B784-7FFDC4B68561
>> -- Call RNG->GetRNG() interface :
>> >> RNG with default algorithm : [Pass]
>> >> RNG with SP800-90-HMAC-256 : [Fail - Status = Unsupported]
>> >> RNG with SP800-90-Hash-256 : [Fail - Status = Unsupported]
>> >> RNG with SP800-90-CTR-256 : [Pass]
>> >> RNG with X9.31-3DES : [Fail - Status = Unsupported]
>> >> RNG with X9.31-AES : [Fail - Status = Unsupported]
>> >> RNG with RAW Entropy : [Pass]
>> -- Random Number Generation Test with default RNG Algorithm (20 Rounds):
>> 01) - 27
>> 02) - 61E8
>> 03) - 496FD8
>> 04) - DDD793BF
>> 05) - B6C37C8E23
>> 06) - 4D183C604A96
>> 07) - 9363311DB61298
>> 08) - 5715A7294F4E436E
>> 09) - F0D4D7BAA0DD52318E
>> 10) - C88C6EBCF4C0474D87C3
>> 11) - B5594602B482A643932172
>> 12) - CA7573F704B2089B726B9CF1
>> 13) - A93E9451CB533DCFBA87B97C33
>> 14) - 45AA7B83DB6044F7BBAB031F0D24
>> 15) - 3DD7A4D61F34ADCB400B5976730DCF
>> 16) - 4DD168D21FAB8F59708330D6A9BEB021
>> 17) - 4BBB225E61C465F174254159467E65939F
>> 18) - 030A156C9616337A20070941E702827DA8E1
>> 19) - AB0FC11C9A4E225011382A9D164D9D55CA2B64
>> 20) - 72B9B4735DC445E5DA6AF88DE965B7E87CB9A23C
> Kees Cook
> Chrome OS & Brillo Security
More information about the linux-arm-kernel