[PATCH V3] PM / Domains: Remove intermediate states from the power off sequence

Lina Iyer lina.iyer at linaro.org
Mon Jun 15 16:56:19 PDT 2015

On Mon, Jun 15 2015 at 17:49 -0600, Kevin Hilman wrote:
>Ulf Hansson <ulf.hansson at linaro.org> writes:
>> Genpd's ->runtime_suspend() (assigned to pm_genpd_runtime_suspend())
>> doesn't immediately walk the hierarchy of ->runtime_suspend() callbacks.
>> Instead, pm_genpd_runtime_suspend() calls pm_genpd_poweroff() which
>> postpones that until *all* the devices in the genpd are runtime suspended.
>> When pm_genpd_poweroff() discovers that the last device in the genpd is
>> about to be runtime suspended, it calls __pm_genpd_save_device() for *all*
>> the devices in the genpd sequentially. Furthermore,
>> __pm_genpd_save_device() invokes the ->start() callback, walks the
>> hierarchy of the ->runtime_suspend() callbacks and invokes the ->stop()
>> callback. This causes a "thundering herd" problem.
>> Let's address this issue by having pm_genpd_runtime_suspend() immediately
>> walk the hierarchy of the ->runtime_suspend() callbacks, instead of
>> postponing that to the power off sequence via pm_genpd_poweroff(). If the
>> selected ->runtime_suspend() callback doesn't return an error code, call
>> pm_genpd_poweroff() to see if it's feasible to also power off the PM
>> domain.
>> Adopting this change enables us to simplify parts of the code in genpd,
>> for example the locking mechanism. Additionally, it gives some positive
>> side effects, as described below.
>> i)
>> One device's ->runtime_resume() latency is no longer affected by other
>> devices' latencies in a genpd.
>> The complexity genpd has to support the option to abort the power off
>> sequence suffers from latency issues. More precisely, a device that is
>> requested to be runtime resumed, may end up waiting for
>> __pm_genpd_save_device() to complete its operations for *another* device.
>> That's because pm_genpd_poweroff() can't confirm an abort request while it
>> waits for __pm_genpd_save_device() to return.
>> As this patch removes the intermediate states in pm_genpd_poweroff() while
>> powering off the PM domain, we no longer need the ability to abort that
>> sequence.
>> ii)
>> Make pm_runtime[_status]_suspended() reliable when used with genpd.
>> Until the last device in a genpd becomes idle, pm_genpd_runtime_suspend()
>> will return 0 without actually walking the hierarchy of the
>> ->runtime_suspend() callbacks. However, by returning 0 the runtime PM core
>> considers the device as runtime_suspended, so
>> pm_runtime[_status]_suspended() will return true, even though the device
>> isn't (yet) runtime suspended.
>> After this patch, since pm_genpd_runtime_suspend() immediately walks the
>> hierarchy of the ->runtime_suspend() callbacks,
>> pm_runtime[_status]_suspended() will accurately reflect the status of the
>> device.
>> iii)
>> Enable fine-grained PM through runtime PM callbacks in drivers/subsystems.
>> There are currently cases were drivers/subsystems implements runtime PM
>> callbacks to deploy fine-grained PM (e.g. gate clocks, move pinctrl to
>> power-save state, etc.). While using the genpd, pm_genpd_runtime_suspend()
>> postpones invoking these callbacks until *all* the devices in the genpd
>> are runtime suspended. In essence, one runtime resumed device prevents
>> fine-grained PM for other devices within the same genpd.
>> After this patch, since pm_genpd_runtime_suspend() immediately walks the
>> hierarchy of the ->runtime_suspend() callbacks, fine-grained PM is enabled
>> throughout all the levels of runtime PM callbacks.
>> Unfortunately this patch also comes with a drawback, as described in the
>> summary below.
>> Driver's/subsystem's runtime PM callbacks may be invoked even when the
>> genpd hasn't actually powered off the PM domain, potentially introducing
>> unnecessary latency.
>> However, in most cases, saving/restoring register contexts for devices are
>> typically fast operations or can be optimized in device specific ways
>> (e.g. shadow copies of register contents in memory, device-specific checks
>> to see if context has been lost before restoring context, etc.).
>> Still, in some cases the driver/subsystem may suffer from latency if
>> runtime PM is used in a very fine-grained manner (e.g. for each IO request
>> or xfer). To prevent that extra overhead, the driver/subsystem may deploy
>> the runtime PM autosuspend feature.
>> Signed-off-by: Ulf Hansson <ulf.hansson at linaro.org>
>Really like the updated changelog.  Very well described, and IMO you
>make a very strong case for this change, which I completely agree is the
>right way to go forward.  IMO, it greatly simplifies understanding this
>code as well.
>I have some minor nits below, but overall really like this approach and
>would like to see this hit -next early in the v4.3 cycle so it gets good
>test exposure.
>I know Lina has been testing this (or an earlier version) on qcom
>hardware so would be nice to get a tested-by from her, and would also be
>nice to see if Geert has a chance to take this for a spin on his Renesas
>hardware and anyone can take this for a spin on Exynos.
Will do.

>> diff --git a/drivers/base/power/domain.c b/drivers/base/power/domain.c
>> index 2327613..2e03f68 100644
>> --- a/drivers/base/power/domain.c
>> +++ b/drivers/base/power/domain.c
>> @@ -133,41 +133,6 @@ static void genpd_sd_counter_inc(struct generic_pm_domain *genpd)
>>  	smp_mb__after_atomic();
>>  }
>> -static void genpd_acquire_lock(struct generic_pm_domain *genpd)
>> -{
>> -	DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
>> -
>> -	mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
>> -	/*
>> -	 * Wait for the domain to transition into either the active,
>> -	 * or the power off state.
>> -	 */
>> -	for (;;) {
>> -		prepare_to_wait(&genpd->status_wait_queue, &wait,
>> -		if (genpd->status == GPD_STATE_ACTIVE
>> -		    || genpd->status == GPD_STATE_POWER_OFF)
>> -			break;
>> -		mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
>> -
>> -		schedule();
>> -
>> -		mutex_lock(&genpd->lock);
>> -	}
>> -	finish_wait(&genpd->status_wait_queue, &wait);
>> -}
>> -
>> -static void genpd_release_lock(struct generic_pm_domain *genpd)
>> -{
>> -	mutex_unlock(&genpd->lock);
>> -}
>> -
>> -static void genpd_set_active(struct generic_pm_domain *genpd)
>> -{
>> -	if (genpd->resume_count == 0)
>> -		genpd->status = GPD_STATE_ACTIVE;
>> -}
>Minor nit: I think you should leave these 3 helpers and just simplify
>them.  It will make the changes below easier to read as well.
>Also, for the locking, Lina will be adding these locking functions back
>anyways, so let's just avoid the extra churn.
Actually, these locks are no longer useful after this patch and can
be removed as part of this series. Will make a clean cut to overlay my


>Otherwise, I think this version is looking really good.
>With the above tweaks, feel free to add
>Reviewed-by: Kevin Hilman <khilman at linaro.org>

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