[PATCHv4 4/4] arm64: Enable TEXT_OFFSET fuzzing

Mark Rutland mark.rutland at arm.com
Tue Jun 24 08:51:37 PDT 2014

The arm64 Image header contains a text_offset field which bootloaders
are supposed to read to determine the offset (from a 2MB aligned "start
of memory" per booting.txt) at which to load the kernel. The offset is
not well respected by bootloaders at present, and due to the lack of
variation there is little incentive to support it. This is unfortunate
for the sake of future kernels where we may wish to vary the text offset
(even zeroing it).

This patch adds options to arm64 to enable fuzz-testing of text_offset.
CONFIG_ARM64_RANDOMIZE_TEXT_OFFSET forces the text offset to a random
16-byte aligned value value in the range [0..2MB) upon a build of the
kernel. It is recommended that distribution kernels enable randomization
to test bootloaders such that any compliance issues can be fixed early.

Signed-off-by: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland at arm.com>
Acked-by: Tom Rini <trini at ti.com>
Acked-by: Will Deacon <will.deacon at arm.com>
 arch/arm64/Kconfig.debug        | 15 +++++++++++++++
 arch/arm64/Makefile             |  4 ++++
 arch/arm64/kernel/head.S        |  8 ++++++--
 arch/arm64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S |  5 +++++
 4 files changed, 30 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/arm64/Kconfig.debug b/arch/arm64/Kconfig.debug
index 1c1b756..4ee8e90 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/Kconfig.debug
+++ b/arch/arm64/Kconfig.debug
@@ -28,4 +28,19 @@ config PID_IN_CONTEXTIDR
 	  instructions during context switch. Say Y here only if you are
 	  planning to use hardware trace tools with this kernel.
+	bool "Randomize TEXT_OFFSET at build time"
+	help
+	  Say Y here if you want the image load offset (AKA TEXT_OFFSET)
+	  of the kernel to be randomized at build-time. When selected,
+	  this option will cause TEXT_OFFSET to be randomized upon any
+	  build of the kernel, and the offset will be reflected in the
+	  text_offset field of the resulting Image. This can be used to
+	  fuzz-test bootloaders which respect text_offset.
+	  This option is intended for bootloader and/or kernel testing
+	  only. Bootloaders must make no assumptions regarding the value
+	  of TEXT_OFFSET and platforms must not require a specific
+	  value.
diff --git a/arch/arm64/Makefile b/arch/arm64/Makefile
index 8185a91..e8d025c 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm64/Makefile
@@ -38,7 +38,11 @@ CHECKFLAGS	+= -D__aarch64__
 head-y		:= arch/arm64/kernel/head.o
 # The byte offset of the kernel image in RAM from the start of RAM.
+TEXT_OFFSET := $(shell awk 'BEGIN {srand(); printf "0x%04x0\n", int(65535 * rand())}')
 TEXT_OFFSET := 0x00080000
diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S b/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S
index 7b59c3d..8483504 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S
+++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S
@@ -37,8 +37,12 @@
-#if (KERNEL_RAM_VADDR & 0xfffff) != 0x80000
-#error KERNEL_RAM_VADDR must start at 0xXXX80000
+#if (TEXT_OFFSET & 0xf) != 0
+#error TEXT_OFFSET must be at least 16B aligned
+#elif (PAGE_OFFSET & 0xfffff) != 0
+#error PAGE_OFFSET must be at least 2MB aligned
+#elif TEXT_OFFSET > 0xfffff
+#error TEXT_OFFSET must be less than 2MB
 	.macro	pgtbl, ttb0, ttb1, virt_to_phys
diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S b/arch/arm64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
index a814768..97f0c04 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
+++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
@@ -125,3 +125,8 @@ SECTIONS
 ASSERT(((__hyp_idmap_text_start + PAGE_SIZE) > __hyp_idmap_text_end),
        "HYP init code too big")
+ * If padding is applied before .head.text, virt<->phys conversions will fail.
+ */
+ASSERT(_text == (PAGE_OFFSET + TEXT_OFFSET), "HEAD is misaligned")

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