[PATCH] x86_64, vmcoreinfo: Append 'page_offset_base' to vmcoreinfo

Bhupesh Sharma bhsharma at redhat.com
Tue Oct 30 00:03:39 PDT 2018


Hi Baoquan,

On Tue, Oct 30, 2018 at 7:37 AM Baoquan He <bhe at redhat.com> wrote:
>
> On 10/29/18 at 04:07pm, Bhupesh Sharma wrote:
> > I am sorry, I understand that the commit log is a bit long and
>
> Yes, it's too long. Please summarize well so that it can save reviewers'
> time.

I have tried to include all the points in the log which might be
relevant to folks (there
are user-space utility maintainers in Cc as well) who might not be
aware of complete
background on this (especially the kernel side of the things), while I
am discussing the
user-space changes with them :)

> > probably this part
> > is not easy to infer. Currently, I see that the 'makedumpfile' utility
> > is broken with newer kernels
> > (I tested on 4.19-rc8+) as we KCORE_REMAP  was added to recent kernels
> > thus leading to an additional section in kcore.
> > [see <http://lists.infradead.org/pipermail/kexec/2018-October/021769.html>
> > for details].
>
> Why it's broken? Have you investigated and figured out why it's broken?
> If fix, what patch will it look like? Does the patch prove it's not
> worth using the current way?
>
> Have you thought about this in advance? Or still like before, you said
> on arm64 you found different boards have different behaviour, then
> makedumpfile maintainer Kazu said he investigated and found it may be
> caused by KALSR. This time, for this KCORE_REMAP adding, can you help to
> investigate further and give an answer to the issue you found and
> raised?

Ofcourse, the patchset which added vmcoreinfo into kcore was discussed
and it was agreed that this was a better approach to move forward and hence
accepted in mainline.

Regarding the makedumpfile issue, I have already provided a detailed
reply to Kazu (you are Cc'ed on the thread) and also proposed a
makedumpfile approach which
reads the 'page_offset_base' value from kcore (using the kernel
interface provided by this patch),
[on which you are Cc'ed as well]:

[1]. https://www.spinics.net/lists/kexec/msg21717.html
[2]. https://www.spinics.net/lists/kexec/msg21722.html

Again I think we are discussing on a wrong tangent here. The idea is
not limited to only makedumpfile - it
affects other user-space utilities (like crash) which are used for
live debugging a running kernel.

> > The details of the makedumpfile utility can be seen via the man page
> > [MAKEDUMPFILE(8)],
> > but in short it tries to make a small DUMPFILE by compressing dump
> > data or by excluding
> > unnecessary pages for analysis, or both.
> >
> > However the bigger problem is how we export machine specific details
> > from kernel-space
> > to user-land in a standardized way. As I mentioned in brief in the git
> > log, I was seeing
> > issues when I upgrade kernels or try to bring up user-space utilities
> > on newer hardware,
> > as currently we use different (and often flaky approaches) to
> > calculate machine specific details in
> > user-space code as there used to be lack of a clear ABI between the
> > kernel and user-space on how
> > machine specific details would be shared.
> >
> > Later on, kernel commit 23c85094fe1895caefdd came, which adds
> > vmcoreinfo to 'kcore',
> > as an arch agnostic approach to unify the differences existing in
> > exporting kernel space information
> > to the user-space code and James suggested that I use the same for
> > user-space purposes to fix
> > the issues I was observing.
> >
> > > Sorry I didn't get what problem this patch is trying to fix from the
> > > patch log.
> >
> > So, here since the 'page_offset_base' variable (which holds the start
> > of direct mapping of all physical
> > memory) is not exported by the x86_64 kernel to the user-space via a
> > standard interface, we resort
> > to calculating the same via reading PT_LOADs in user-space (as an
> > example from the makedumpfile
> > implementation ). Now this implementation is usually different across
> > user-space utilities.
> >
> > Also, if the PT_LOAD ordering changes (as we saw with the newer
> > kernels), this approach will need
> > fixing to calculate the addresses. In addition, we normally need
> > 'page_offset_base' value in user-space (and retrieve it via
> > vmlinux file in another user case from the same makedumpfile code) for
> > calculating the start of direct mapping of all physical
> > memory specifically for KASLR boot cases.
> >
> > Instead, if we can export 'page_offset_base' via vmcoreinfo, we can
> > easily use the same
> > for live-debugging a running kernel via user-space utilities, which
> > can benefit by reading this value
> > from the vmcoreinfo note inside kcore directly without relying on other methods.
>
> We have got a method, what's wrong with that? Only KCORE_REMAP adding,
> again? if fix, what is the defect? Where's patch, analysis, only one
> sentence to say KCORE_REMAP caused that?

Please see above, this is not limited to one use-case of makedumpfile
tool. Also, it extends
to other user-space utilities (like crash) as well.

See, why would we want to have every user-space utility implement a
different mechanism for solving the same problem, right? If a standard interface
is available from the kernel side we better use the same across all user-land.

Plus, if this interface (vmcoreinfo in kcore) is available from the
kernel side for all archs (like it is currently), it solves
another set of problem in the user-space tools, i.e. we don't need to
keep different arch specific
implementations across different user-space tool (see [1] above for
e.g., both x86_64 and arm64 makedumpfile code
bases use an almost similar approach now). I understand that such
changes are always
obstructive, but hopefully it saves us the effort to manage
differences across user-land in the longer run.

So, via this patch I propose that the kernel export 'page_offset_base'
variable via vmcoreinfo
and user-space uses its uniformly to determine the start of direct
mapping of all physical
memory.

Hope this clarifies the background.

Regads,
Bhupesh


> >
> > The x86_64 kernel code ('arch/x86/kernel/head64.c'), already sets the same as:
> > unsigned long page_offset_base __ro_after_init = __PAGE_OFFSET_BASE_L4;
> >
> > and also uses the same to indicate the base of KASLR regions on x86_64:
> > static __initdata struct kaslr_memory_region {
> >     unsigned long *base;
> >     unsigned long size_tb;
> > } kaslr_regions[] = {
> >     { &page_offset_base, 0 },
> >
> > so it can be used for both the above purposes across user-space utilities.
> >
> > Hope this explains the intention behind this patch.
> >
> > Thanks,
> > Bhupesh
> >
> > > About this, I have replied to you in
> > > lkml.kernel.org/r/20181025063446.GD2120 at MiWiFi-R3L-srv
> > > You might miss it.
> > >
> > > About this exporting, I ever posted patch to upstream and we have had
> > > discussion, please check
> > > https://lore.kernel.org/patchwork/patch/723472/
> > >
> > > In makedumpfile and crash, we have had a clear method to analyze and
> > > deduce it from kcore or vmcore.
> > >
> > > Thanks
> > > Baoquan
> > >
> > > On 10/27/18 at 04:13am, Bhupesh Sharma wrote:
> > > > Since commit 23c85094fe1895caefdd
> > > > ["proc/kcore: add vmcoreinfo note to /proc/kcore"]), '/proc/kcore'
> > > > contains a new PT_NOTE which carries the VMCOREINFO information.
> > > >
> > > > If the same is available, one can use it in user-land to
> > > > retrieve machine specific symbols or strings being appended to the
> > > > vmcoreinfo even for live-debugging of the primary kernel as a
> > > > standard interface exposed by kernel for sharing machine specific
> > > > details with the user-land.
> > > >
> > > > In the past I had a discussion with James, where he suggested this
> > > > approach (please see [0]) and I really liked the idea. Since then I
> > > > have been working on unifying the implementations of
> > > > (atleast) the commonly used user-space utilities that provide
> > > > live-debugging capabilities (tools like 'makedumpfile' and
> > > > 'crash-utility', see [1] for details of these tools).
> > > >
> > > > For the same, when live debugging on x86_64 machines, user-space
> > > > tools currently rely on different mechanisms to determine
> > > > the 'page_offset_base' value (i.e. start of direct mapping of all
> > > > physical memory). One of the approach used by 'makedumpfile'
> > > > user-space tool for e.g. is to calculate the same from the last
> > > > PT_LOAD available in '/proc/kcore', which can be flaky as and when
> > > > new sections (for e.g. KCORE_REMAP which was added
> > > > to recent kernels) are added to kcore.
> > > >
> > > > For other architectures like arm64, I have already proposed using
> > > > the vmcoreinfo note (in '/proc/kcore') in the user-space utilities to
> > > > determine machine specific details like VA_BITS, PAGE_OFFSET,
> > > > kasrl_offset() (see [2] for details), for which different user-space
> > > > tools earlier used different (and at times flaky) approaches like:
> > > >
> > > > - Reading kernel CONFIGs from user-space and determining CONFIG values
> > > >    like VA_BITS from there.
> > > >  - Reading symbols from '/proc/kallsyms' and determining their values
> > > >    via '/dev/mem' interface.
> > > >  - Reading symbols from 'vmlinux' and determing their values from
> > > >    reading memory.
> > > >
> > > > This patch allows appending 'page_offset_base' for x86_64 platforms
> > > > to vmcoreinfo, so that user-space tools can use the same as a standard
> > > > interface to determine the start of direct mapping of all physical
> > > > memory.
> > > >
> > > > Testing:
> > > > -------
> > > >  - I tested this patch (rebased on 'linux-next') on a x86_64 machine
> > > >    using the modified 'makedumpfile' user-space code (see [3] for my
> > > >    github tree which contains the same) for determining how many pages
> > > >    are dumpable when different dump_level is specified (which is
> > > >    one use-case of live-debugging via 'makedumpfile').
> > > >  - I tested both the KASLR and non-KASLR boot cases with this patch.
> > > >  - Here is one sample log (for KASLR boot case) on my x86_64 machine:
> > > >
> > > >    < snip..>
> > > >    The kernel doesn't support mmap(),read() will be used instead.
> > > >
> > > >    TYPE               PAGES                   EXCLUDABLE      DESCRIPTION
> > > >    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > >    ZERO               21299                   yes             Pages filled
> > > >    with zero
> > > >    NON_PRI_CACHE      91785                   yes             Cache
> > > >    pages without private flag
> > > >    PRI_CACHE  1                       yes             Cache pages with
> > > >    private flag
> > > >    USER               14057                   yes             User process
> > > >    pages
> > > >    FREE               740346                  yes             Free pages
> > > >    KERN_DATA  58152                   no              Dumpable kernel
> > > >    data
> > > >
> > > >    page size:         4096
> > > >    Total pages on system:     925640
> > > >    Total size on system:      3791421440       Byte
> > > >
> > > > I understand that there might be some reservations about exporting
> > > > such machine-specific details in the vmcoreinfo, but to unify
> > > > the implementations across user-land and archs, perhaps this would be
> > > > good starting point to start a discussion.
> > > >
> > > > [0]. https://www.mail-archive.com/kexec@lists.infradead.org/msg20300.html
> > > > [1]. MAN pages -> MAKEDUMPFILE(8) and CRASH(8)
> > > > [2]. https://www.spinics.net/lists/kexec/msg21608.html
> > > >      http://lists.infradead.org/pipermail/kexec/2018-October/021725.html
> > > > [3]. https://github.com/bhupesh-sharma/makedumpfile/tree/add-page-offset-base-to-vmcore-v1
> > > >
> > > > Cc: Boris Petkov <bp at alien8.de>
> > > > Cc: Baoquan He <bhe at redhat.com>
> > > > Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo at kernel.org>
> > > > Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx at linutronix.de>
> > > > Cc: Kazuhito Hagio <k-hagio at ab.jp.nec.com>
> > > > Cc: Dave Anderson <anderson at redhat.com>
> > > > Cc: James Morse <james.morse at arm.com>
> > > > Cc: Omar Sandoval <osandov at fb.com>
> > > > Cc: x86 at kernel.org
> > > > Cc: kexec at lists.infradead.org
> > > > Cc: linux-arm-kernel at lists.infradead.org
> > > > Signed-off-by: Bhupesh Sharma <bhsharma at redhat.com>
> > > > ---
> > > >  arch/x86/kernel/machine_kexec_64.c | 1 +
> > > >  1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)
> > > >
> > > > diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/machine_kexec_64.c b/arch/x86/kernel/machine_kexec_64.c
> > > > index 4c8acdfdc5a7..834ccefef867 100644
> > > > --- a/arch/x86/kernel/machine_kexec_64.c
> > > > +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/machine_kexec_64.c
> > > > @@ -356,6 +356,7 @@ void arch_crash_save_vmcoreinfo(void)
> > > >       VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(init_top_pgt);
> > > >       vmcoreinfo_append_str("NUMBER(pgtable_l5_enabled)=%d\n",
> > > >                       pgtable_l5_enabled());
> > > > +     VMCOREINFO_NUMBER(page_offset_base);
> > > >
> > > >  #ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
> > > >       VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(node_data);
> > > > --
> > > > 2.7.4
> > > >



More information about the kexec mailing list