[PATCH 0/2] kdump: Enter 2nd kernel with BSP for enabling multiple CPUs
d.hatayama at jp.fujitsu.com
Sun Apr 15 22:21:28 EDT 2012
Currently, booting up 2nd kernel with multiple CPUs fails in most
cases since it enters 2nd kernel with AP if the crash happens on the
AP. The problem is to signal startup IPI from AP to BSP. Typical
result of the operation I saw is the machine hanging during the 2nd
To solve this issue, always enter 2nd kernel with BSP. To do this, I
modify logic for shooting down CPUs. I use simple existing logic only
in this mechanism, not complicating crash path to machine_kexec().
I did stress tests about 100 in total on the processors below:
Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E7- 4820 @ 2.00GHz
Socket x 4, Core x 8, Thread x 16 (160 LCPUS in total)
Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E7- 8870 @ 2.40GHz
Socket x 8, Core x 10, Thread x 20 (64 LCPUS in total)
* Motivation of enabling multiple CPUs on the 2nd kernel
This patch is aimed at doing parallel compression on the 2nd
kernel. The machine that has more than tera bytes memory requires
several hours to generate crash dump.
There are several ways to reduce generation time of crash time, but
they have different pros and cons:
Fast I/O devices
- Can obtain high-speed stably
- Big financial cost for good performance I/O devices. It's
difficult financially to prepare these for all environments as
- No financial cost.
- Large reduction of crash dump size
- Some data is definitely lost. So, we cannot use this on some
1) High availability configuration where application triggers
OS to crash and users want to debug the application later by
retrieving the application's user process image from the
system's crash dump.
2) KVM virtualization configuration where KVM host machine
contains KVM guest machine images as user processes.
3) Page cache is needed for debugging filesystem related bugs.
- No financial cost.
- No data lost.
- Compression doesn't always reduce crash dump size.
- take heavy CPU time. Slow if CPU is weak in speed.
Machines with large memory tend to have a lot of CPUs. Parallel
compression is sutable for parallel processing. My goal is to make
compression as for free as possible.
- Extend 512MB limit of reserved memory size for 2nd kernel for
- Intel microcode patch loading on the 2nd kenrel is slow for the
2nd and later CPUs: about one or more minutes per one CPU.
- There are a limited number of irq vectors for TLB flush IPI on
x86_64: 32 for recent 3.x kernels and 8 for around 2.6.x
kernels. So compression doesn't scale if a lot of page reclaim
happens when reading kernel image larger than memory. Special
handling without page cache could be applicable to parallel dump
mechanism, but more investigation is needed.
HATAYAMA Daisuke (2):
Enter 2nd kernel with BSP
Introduce crash ipi helpers to wait for APs to stop
arch/x86/include/asm/reboot.h | 4 +++
arch/x86/kernel/crash.c | 15 +++++++++-
arch/x86/kernel/reboot.c | 63 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------
3 files changed, 62 insertions(+), 20 deletions(-)
More information about the kexec