[PATCH] kdump: Fix crash_kexec - smp_send_stop race in panic

Michael Holzheu holzheu at linux.vnet.ibm.com
Fri Nov 11 07:28:14 EST 2011

Hello Chris,

On Thu, 2011-11-10 at 10:11 -0500, Chris Metcalf wrote:
> On 11/10/2011 9:22 AM, Michael Holzheu wrote:


> If a cleaner API seems useful (either for power reasons or restartability 
> or whatever), I suppose a standard global function name could be specified 
> that's the thing you execute when you get an smp_send_stop IPI (in tile's 
> case it's "smp_stop_cpu_interrupt()") and the panic() code could instead 
> just do an atomic_inc_return() of a global panic counter, and if it wasn't 
> the first panicking cpu, call directly into the smp_stop handler routine to 
> quiesce itself.  Then the panicking cpu could finish whatever it needs to 
> do and then halt, reboot, etc., all the cpus.

Thanks for the info. So introducing a "weak" function that can stop the
CPU it is running on could solve the problem. Every architecture can
override the function with something appropriate. E.g. "tile" can use
the lower-power "nap" instruction there.

What about the following patch.

From: Michael Holzheu <holzheu at linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Subject: kdump: fix crash_kexec()/smp_send_stop() race in panic

When two CPUs call panic at the same time there is a possible race
condition that can stop kdump.  The first CPU calls crash_kexec() and the
second CPU calls smp_send_stop() in panic() before crash_kexec() finished
on the first CPU.  So the second CPU stops the first CPU and therefore
kdump fails:

1st CPU:
panic()->crash_kexec()->mutex_trylock(&kexec_mutex)-> do kdump

2nd CPU:
panic()->crash_kexec()->kexec_mutex already held by 1st CPU
       ->smp_send_stop()-> stop 1st CPU (stop kdump)

This patch fixes the problem by introducing a spinlock in panic that
allows only one CPU to process crash_kexec() and the subsequent panic

Signed-off-by: Michael Holzheu <holzheu at linux.vnet.ibm.com>
 kernel/panic.c |   18 +++++++++++++++++-
 1 file changed, 17 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)

--- a/kernel/panic.c
+++ b/kernel/panic.c
@@ -49,6 +49,15 @@ static long no_blink(int state)
 long (*panic_blink)(int state);
+ * Stop ourself in panic -- architecture code may override this
+ */
+void __attribute__ ((weak)) panic_smp_self_stop(void)
+	while (1)
+		cpu_relax();
  *	panic - halt the system
  *	@fmt: The text string to print
@@ -59,6 +68,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(panic_blink);
 NORET_TYPE void panic(const char * fmt, ...)
+	static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(panic_lock);
 	static char buf[1024];
 	va_list args;
 	long i, i_next = 0;
@@ -68,8 +78,14 @@ NORET_TYPE void panic(const char * fmt,
 	 * It's possible to come here directly from a panic-assertion and
 	 * not have preempt disabled. Some functions called from here want
 	 * preempt to be disabled. No point enabling it later though...
+	 *
+	 * Only one CPU is allowed to execute the panic code from here. For
+	 * multiple parallel invocations of panic, all other CPUs either
+	 * stop themself or will wait until they are stopped by the 1st CPU
+	 * with smp_send_stop().
-	preempt_disable();
+	if (!spin_trylock(&panic_lock))
+		panic_smp_self_stop();

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